What is oil paint and what is latex paint?

This is just a question of which binder and reducer you use. Originally oil paint was made with linseed oil as a binder. You reduce it with mineral spirits. (Paint thinners, turpentine, etc.)
Latex paint is a Canadian invention. (Swell with patriotic pride. It uses a resin from the rubber tree called "latex" as the binder. The advantage is latex paint can be reduced with water and doesn't smell bad.
In summary: Oil paint - made with oil. Reduces with paint thinner. Smellier. Latex paint - made with... latex! Reduces with water. Less smell.

I see paint labels that say "Alkyd" and "Acrylic" What's with that??

As in law and medicine, paint terminology is designed to keep mere mortals in line.
ALKYD - technically means a synthetic (man-made) resin. Alkyd is OIL PAINT using a man made oil. That's all it is. ALKYD = OIL PAINT.
ACRYLIC - you guessed it. Synthetic latex. ACRYLIC = LATEX PAINT. to be fair to the manufacturers, even though they confuse you with names, the paint keeps getting better and better. Especially Acrylic. In some areas, (California for one) oil paint is now illegal as it is considered too toxic. So research in Acrylic paint is going leaps and bounds. New stuff is coming out all the time. (I'm just glad I'm not working in computers!)

Which paint is best?

Well, it depends. For walls usually an acrylic latex is best. For doors and window sills etc. Oil paint is usually stronger. Acrylic paints breathe more. They allow moisture to evaporate better from inside walls. Acrylics are better for the environment. Disposal is less of a problem. You can wash up the brushes with soap and water. Having said all that, I find it hard to beat a nice coat of shiny oil paint for doors and trim. It dries with a smooth, hard finish. It stinks and it's a pain to clean up, but it really gives a nice result once it's all over.

What are the best paints to use in the kitchen, bathroom, and other high moisture areas?

Due to the high levels of humidity and condensation in both kitchens and bathrooms, they are prone to paint cracking, peeling and mildew. To avoid these problems, use a top quality latex paint in a semi-gloss finish. This has a high sheen value, meaning it provides a harder finish that is more moisture-resistant than other paints. Besides, it is completely washable.

How Are Painted Surfaces Tested?

Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzers (XRFs): A portable XRF measures lead in paint, generally without damaging the paint. However, readings from some XRFs are affected by the base material (known as the “substrate”) underneath the paint, such as wood, plaster, or metal. For these cases, the certified Inspector removes paint from a few surfaces of each type and takes a measurement on the unpainted surface. These measurements provide a baseline to adjust the lead in paint value. This procedure may do some paint damage. Also, for curved surfaces or very deteriorated paint, XRF analyzers may not read accurately and a paint chip sample may be required. When a certified lead-based paint professional follows good testing practices, XRF analyzers provide a fast and reliable method for classifying many painted surfaces. However, some XRF test results may be inconclusive (neither positive nor negative). Then laboratory testing of a paint chip sample may be necessary. Because the XRF analyzer uses a radiation source to detect lead, occupants in the household should be asked to stay out of rooms behind the surfaces being tested.

What Do The Results Of Paint Testing Mean?

XRF analyzer measurements determine whether lead is present in your paint or not Paint is classified as lead-based when there is 1.0 mg/cm2 (milligram of lead per square centimeter of painted surface) The laboratory report is written in terms of the amount, or weight of lead per weight of paint chips . The federal definition of lead-based paint is 0.5% lead or 5,000 milligram of lead per kilogram of paint chips.

How Are Dust Samples Collected And Analyzed?

The simplest method of collecting dust is a surface wipe sample in an area of one square foot is sampled. To assure collection of all dust particles, the area is wiped several times in different directions. After collection, the dust sample is contained and sealed, then sent to a laboratory for assessment.

Why use epoxy coatings?

Epoxy coatings are mainly used because of their outstanding chemical resistance, durability, low porosity and high bonding strength. Epoxy coating will bond with almost all properly prepared surfaces. It will provide an attractive, long-lasting, chemically resistant, strong bonding, and a highly decorative film.
Epoxy coating consists of two distinct components. Side A Epoxy Resin and Side B Curing Agent. The two components are mixed in a 1-to-1 ratio. A chemical reaction occurs between the two parts generating heat and turning the mixture into an inert, hard film with the previously mentioned characteristics. After the two-epoxy parts are combined there is a working time (pot-life) during which the epoxy can be applied or used.