water testing lab delhi

What is water?

Water is a very important substance, as it makes up the larger part of an organisms body. It consists of tiny particles, The Atoms, just like every other substance on earth. One of these atoms is called hydrogen and the other is called oxygen.

What is in our drinking water?

Drinking water contains small amount of bacteria are common ones and they are harmful. Chloride is usually added to drinking water to prevent bacteria growth while the water streams through pipelines. Water mostly consists of minerals and other inorganic compounds, such as calcium.

What is hard water?

It contains more minerals than ordinary water i.e. Ca & Mg. The degree of hardness of water exceeds, when more Ca & Mg dissolve. Ca & Mg are positively charges ions. Because of their presence, other positively charges substances will dissolve less easy in hard water than in water that does not contain Ca & Mg. This is the cause of the fact that soap doesn't really dissolve.

What are the problems with hard water?

Hard water causes pipes to fur up and scale to collect in kettles and in electric irons and washing machines. If the scale collects on heating elements it shortens their life and makes appliances less efficient.

What is chlorine?

Chlorine has to be used carefully, but it is harmless when used in very small amounts as a disinfectant to treat drinking water. It is also used in higher concentrations to disinfect water in swimming pools.

Why use chlorine?

Chlorine is very effective disinfectant. It is absolutely essential that drinking water should be safe to drink and contain no harmful bacteria capable of causing diseases.

What are the recommended limits?
Essential Characteristics Requirement
(Desirable Limits)
Undesirable Effect
(Out side the Desirable Limits)
Permissible Limit in the absence of alternate source
pH value
 
6.5 to 8.5 Beyond this range the water will affect the mucous membrane and/or water supply stem No relaxation
Total Hardness
(as CaCO3)
mg/l, max
300 Encrustation in water supply structure and adverse effects on domestic use 600
Iron (as Fe) mg/l, max 0.3 Beyond this limit taste/appearance are affected, has adverse effect on domestic uses and water supply structures, promotes iron bacteria 1.0
Chloride (as Cl)
mg/l, max
250 Beyond this limit test, corrosion and palatability are affected 1000
Fluoride (as F)
mg/l, max
1.0 Fluoride may be kept as low as possible. High fluoride may cause fluorisis 1.5
Dissolved solids
mg/l, max
500 Beyond this palatability decreases and may cause gastro intestinal irritation 2000
Nitrate (as NO2)
mg/l, max
45 Beyond this methaemoglobinemia take place No relaxation
Sulphate (as SO4)
mg/l, max
200 Beyond this causes gastrointestinal irritation when Mg & Na are present 400
Alkalinity
mg/l, max
200 Beyond this limit taste becomes unpleasant 600
Are you aware of Legionnairs'disease ?

This disease is caused by a bacterium called Legionella. Among the 48 species of Legionella, Legionella pneumophila is responsible for approximately 90% of infections. These bacteria live in environmental sources and in ma-made water systems such as recreational water systems and water distribution systems. They can survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH, inhabiting in cooling towers, air-conditioning units, humidifiers, bath tubs, spas, water taps, etc. PBR offers full sampling and testing services for Legionella bacteria.

What is the difference between salt water and freshwater?

Salt water is water that contains a certain amount of salts. This means that its conductivity is higher and its taste much saltier when one drinks it. Salt water is not suited to be used as drinking water, because salt drains water from human bodies. When humans drink salt water they risk dehydration. If we want to drink seawater, it needs to be desalinated first. Salt water can be found everywhere on the surface of the earth, in the oceans, in rivers and in saltwater ponds. About 71% of the earth is covered with salt water.Freshwater is water with a dissolved salt concentration of less than 1%. There are two kinds of freshwater reservoirs: standing bodies of freshwater, such as lakes, ponds and inland wetlands and floating bodies of freshwater, such as streams and rivers. These bodies of water cover only a small part of the earth's surface, and their locations are unrelated to climate. Only about 1% of the earth's surface is covered with freshwater, whereas 41% of all known fish species live in this water. Fresh water zones are usually closely connected to land; therefore they are often threatened by a constant input of organic matter, inorganic nutrients and pollutants.

How much freshwater is available?

Of all the water on earth, which is 97,14% of the total amount of surface water, only 2,59% is freshwater. of this 2,59% another percentage is trapped in ice caps and glaciers, which is about 2%The rest of the freshwater is either groundwater (0,592%), or readily accessible water in lakes, streams, rivers, etc. (0,014%)

How much water is suitable for drinking purpose?

From the quantities that came up in the questions listed above, one can conclude that less than 1% of the water supply on earth can be used as drinking water.

Which factor determines water quality?

CWater quality is determined by the presence and quantity of contaminants, by physical/ chemical factors such as pH and conductivity, by the number of salts present and by the presence of nutrients. Humans largely influence all these factors, as they discharge their waste in water and add all kinds of substances and contaminants to water that are not naturally present.

How can bacteria be removed from water?

Bacteria and other microorganisms are removed from water through disinfection. This means that certain substances are added to kill the bacteria, these are called biocides. Sometimes disinfection can also be done with UV-light.

Which physical and chemical properties does water have?

Absolutely! We are experts in polymer identification. Polymer identification is not a simple technique. It has to be confirmed by at least 2 instrumental techniques i.e. FTIR, TGA or DSC and physical and chemical properties like burning properties, specific gravity, solubility, etc. The combined results of all these leads to correct identification. Simple identification involves comparison with standard library spectra of known polymer by FTIR hence it costs less.

  • Density. The density of water means the weight of a certain amount of water. It is usually expressed in kilograms per cubic meter. (physical)
  • Thermal properties. This refers to what happens to water when it is heated; at which temperature it becomes gaseous and that sort of thing. (physical)
  • Conductivity. This means the amount of electricity that water can conduct. It is expressed in a chemical magnitude. (physical)
  • Light absorption. This is the amount of light a certain amount of water can absorb over time. (chemical)
  • Viscosity. This means the syrupiness of water and it determines the mobility of water. When the temperature rises, the viscosity degrades; this means that water will be more mobile at higher temperatures. (physical)
  • The pH. The pH has its own scale, running up from 1 to 14. The pH shows whether a substance is acid (pH 1-6), neutral (pH 7) or basic (pH 8-14). The number of hydrogen atoms in the substance determines the pH. The more hydrogen atoms a substance contains, the lower the pH will be. A substance that contains many hydrogen atoms is acid. We can measure the pH by dipping a special colouring paper in the substance, the colours shows which pH the substance has. (chemical)
  • Alkalinity. This is the capacity of water to neutralize an acid or a base, so that the pH of the water will not change. (chemical).
How do we detect water pollution?

Water pollution is detected in laboratories, where small samples of water are analysed for different contaminants. Living organisms such as fish can also be used for the detection of water pollution. Changes in their behavior or growth show us, that the water they live in is polluted. Specific properties of these organisms can give information on the sort of pollution in their environment. Laboratories also use computer models to determine what dangers there can be in certain waters. They import the data they own on the water into the computer, and the computer then determines if the water has any impurities.

What is acid rain and how does it develop?

Typical rainwater has a pH of about 5 to 6. This means that it is naturally a neutral, slightly acidic liquid. During precipitation rainwater dissolves gasses such as carbon dioxide and oxygen. The industry now emits great amounts of acidifying gasses, such as sulphuric oxides and carbon monoxide. These gasses also dissolve in rainwater. This causes a change in pH of the precipitation � the pH of rain will fall to a value of or below 4. When a substance has a pH of below 6.5, it is acid. The lower the pH, the more acid the substance is. That is why rain with a lower pH, due to dissolved industrial emissions, is called acid rain.

Can you determine the cause of a product (defect, failure)?

Yes we can determine the cause of defect or failure in the product. We also compare the defective product with an exemplar product and its raw materials, and find out what is different between the "good" vs. "bad".

How can bacteria be removed from water?

Bacteria and other microorganisms are removed from water through disinfections. This means that certain substances are added to kill the bacteria, these are called biocides. Sometimes disinfections can also be done with UV-light.

What dangers can there be in drinking water?

There are several problems that can endanger the quality of drinking water. A number of these problems are summed up here.
Someone can detect coliform bacteria in drinking water. Coliform bacteria are a group of microrganisms that are normally found in the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals, and in surface water. When these organisms are detected in drinking water this suggests contamination from a subsurface source such as barnyard run-off. The presence of these bacteria indicates that disease-causing microrganisms, known as pathogens, may enter the drinking water supply in the same way if one does not take preventive action. Drinking water should be free from coliform.
Yeasts and viruses can also endanger the quality of drinking water. They are microbial contaminants that are usually found in surface water. Examples are Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia is a single cell organism that causes gastrointestinal symptoms. Cryptosporidium is a parasite that is considered to be one of the most significant causes of diarrhoeal disease in humans. In individuals with a normal immune system the disease lasts for several days causing diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach cramps and fever. People with weakened immune systems can suffer from far worse symptoms, caused by cryptosporidium, such as cholera-like illnesses.
Nitrate in drinking water can cause cyanosis, a reduction of the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. This is particularly dangerous to infants under six months of age.
Lead can enter the water supply as it leaches from copper pipelines. As the water streams through the pipes, small amounts of lead will dissolve in the water, so that it becomes contaminated. Lead is a toxic substance that can be quickly absorbed in the human systems, particularly those of small children. It causes lead poisoning.
Legionella is a bacterium that grows rapidly when water is maintained at a temperature between 30 and 40 degrees for a longer period of time. This bacterium can be inhaled when water evaporates as it enters the human body with aerosols. The bacteria can cause a sort of flue, known as Pontiac fever, but it can also cause the more serious deathly illness known as legionellosis.

How long can water be stored?

If stored properly, water in 3-litre and 5-litre containers can be stored for approximately two years. Smaller containers of 1 litre up to 2.5 litres of water are made with a thinner grade of plastic and can be stored for approximately six months. They cannot be stored as long, because they are very susceptive to penetrating odours.

How should water be stored?

One should pay special attention to how water is stored. Water should be stored in a cool, dark and dry place and it should be stored away from cleaning supplies and other chemicals. Water can pick up odours from other substances that we cannot detect in the air, so one should always pay attention to the properties of other substances that are stored with the water.

What is water softening?

When water contains a significant amount of calcium and magnesium, it is called hard water. Hard water is known to clog pipes and to complicate soap and detergent dissolving in water. Water softening is a technique that serves the removal of the ions that cause the water to be hard, in most cases calcium and magnesium ions. Iron ions may also be removed during softening.The best way to soften water is to use a water softener unit and connect it directly to the water supply.

How is water quality assessed?

To determine water quality, certified agencies take samples; small amounts of water in a medium which can be tested in a laboratory. Laboratories test these samples on various factors, and see if they suffice water quality standards.One of these factors is the number of colonies of coliform bacteria; these are an indicator for drinking or swimming water quality. Another factor is the concentration of certain contaminants and other substances, such as eutrophication agents.

How do we detect water pollution?

Water pollution is detected in laboratories, where small samples of water are analysed for different contaminants. Living organisms such as fish can also be used for the detection of water pollution. Changes in their behavior or growth show us, that the water they live in is polluted. Specific properties of these organisms can give information on the sort of pollution in their environment. Laboratories also use computer models to determine what dangers there can be in certain waters. They import the data they own on the water into the computer, and the computer then determines if the water has any impurities.

What is acid rain and how does it develop?

Typical rainwater has a pH of about 5 to 6. This means that it is naturally a neutral, slightly acidic liquid. During precipitation rainwater dissolves gasses such as carbon dioxide and oxygen. The industry now emits great amounts of acidifying gasses, such as sulphuric oxides and carbon monoxide. These gasses also dissolve in rainwater. This causes a change in pH of the precipitation � the pH of rain will fall to a value of or below 4. When a substance has a pH of below 6.5, it is acid. The lower the pH, the more acid the substance is. That is why rain with a lower pH, due to dissolved industrial emissions, is called acid rain.

What dangers can there be in drinking water?

There are several problems that can endanger the quality of drinking water. A number of these problems are summed up here.
Someone can detect coliform bacteria in drinking water. Coliform bacteria are a group of microrganisms that are normally found in the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals, and in surface water. When these organisms are detected in drinking water this suggests contamination from a subsurface source such as barnyard run-off. The presence of these bacteria indicates that disease-causing microrganisms, known as pathogens, may enter the drinking water supply in the same way if one does not take preventive action. Drinking water should be free from coliform. Yeasts and viruses can also endanger the quality of drinking water. They are microbial contaminants that are usually found in surface water. Examples are Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia is a single cell organism that causes gastrointestinal symptoms. Cryptosporidium is a parasite that is considered to be one of the most significant causes of diarrhoeal disease in humans. In individuals with a normal immune system the disease lasts for several days causing diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach cramps and fever. People with weakened immune systems can suffer from far worse symptoms, caused by cryptosporidium, such as cholera-like illnesses.
Nitrate in drinking water can cause cyanosis, a reduction of the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. This is particularly dangerous to infants under six months of age.
Lead can enter the water supply as it leaches from copper pipelines. As the water streams through the pipes, small amounts of lead will dissolve in the water, so that it becomes contaminated. Lead is a toxic substance that can be quickly absorbed in the human systems, particularly those of small children. It causes lead poisoning.
Legionella is a bacterium that grows rapidly when water is maintained at a temperature between 30 and 40 degrees for a longer period of time. This bacterium can be inhaled when water evaporates as it enters the human body with aerosols. The bacteria can cause a sort of flue, known as Pontiac fever, but it can also cause the more serious deathly illness known as legionellosis..

How long can water be stored?

If stored properly, water in 3-litre and 5-litre containers can be stored for approximately two years. Smaller containers of 1 litre up to 2.5 litres of water are made with a thinner grade of plastic and can be stored for approximately six months. They cannot be stored as long, because they are very susceptive to penetrating odours.

How should water be stored?

One should pay special attention to how water is stored. Water should be stored in a cool, dark and dry place and it should be stored away from cleaning supplies and other chemicals. Water can pick up odours from other substances that we cannot detect in the air, so one should always pay attention to the properties of other substances that are stored with the water.

What is water softening?

When water contains a significant amount of calcium and magnesium, it is called hard water. Hard water is known to clog pipes and to complicate soap and detergent dissolving in water. Water softening is a technique that serves the removal of the ions that cause the water to be hard, in most cases calcium and magnesium ions. Iron ions may also be removed during softening.The best way to soften water is to use a water softener unit and connect it directly to the water supply.

How is water quality assessed?

To determine water quality, certified agencies take samples; small amounts of water in a medium which can be tested in a laboratory. Laboratories test these samples on various factors, and see if they suffice water quality standards.One of these factors is the number of colonies of coliform bacteria; these are an indicator for drinking or swimming water quality. Another factor is the concentration of certain contaminants and other substances, such as eutrophication agents..